For example, the simple Dublin Core description above might be used alongside other vocabularies such as vCard that can describe the author's affiliation and contact information, or a more specialized "rose description" vocabulary that described the rose bushes in greater detail. Those involved in developing new syntax encoding guidelines for Dublin Core metadata or developing metadata application profiles based on the Dublin Core should also become familiar with the DC Abstract Model. Retrieved 6 May Such convergence on a common, if slightly more generic, element set increases the visibility and accessibility of all resources, both within a given discipline and beyond. Yellin writes, "During her last show she collapsed and had to be taken home on an Army airplane.
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And John Steinbeck , just back from a chore as war correspondent, According to historian Paul Holsinger, between and , the USO did , performances in , separate visits. Estimates were that more than million servicemen and women, in the U.
The USO also did shows in military hospitals, eventually entertaining more than 3 million wounded soldiers and sailors in different hospitals.
There were different USO troupes that toured the world, some spending up to six months per tour. She was scrapped in Twenty-eight performers died in the course of their tours, from plane crashes, illness, or diseases contracted while on tour. Froman returned to Europe on crutches in to again entertain the troops. She later married the co-pilot who saved her life in that crash, and her story was made into the film With a Song in My Heart , with Froman providing the actual singing voice.
One author wrote that by the end of the war "the USO amounted to the biggest enterprise American show business has ever tackled. The audience was millions of American fighting men, the theatre's location: USO camp shows"  Performances continued after the end of the war in Special Services productions grew in number as replacement. Another movie was planned in but never made. Unfortunately, he died a week later as a result of physical exhaustion from his tour.
From to , the USO presented more than , performances, featuring entertainers such as: According to Emily Yellin, many of the key foot soldiers in the USO's mission were women who were "charged with providing friendly diversion for U.
USO historian Julia Carson writes that this "nostalgic hour," designed to cheer and comfort soldiers, involved "listening to music — American style" and "looking at pretty girls, like no other pretty girls in the world — American girls. African-American women scrambled to rally the community around the soldiers and create programs for them.
By , hostesses had served more than two thousand soldiers a day while also providing facilities for the wounded and convalescent who were on leave. They went to black businesses and fraternal organizations in order to find sponsorship for their USO group, and later expanded to fulfill the needs of soldiers during the Korean War.
Moreover, they worked to merge black and white USOs into one desegregated unit. Women were also key entertainers who performed at shows. Yellin notes that on one tour, Hayworth visited six camps, gave thousands of autographs, and "came back from Texas with a full-fledged nervous breakdown from over-enthusiasm!
Author Joeie Dee pointed out that "for women entertainers, traveling with the USO made it possible to be patriots and adventurers as well as professionals.
But I really felt she was like a girl from back home. We've played to audiences, many of them ankle deep in mud, huddled under the ponchos in the pouring rain it breaks your heart the first two or three times to see men so hungry for entertainment. We've played on uncovered stages, when we, as well as the audience, got rain-soaked. We've played with huge tropical bugs flying in our hair and faces; we've played to audiences of thousands of men, audiences spreading from our very feet to far up a hillside and many sitting in the trees.
We've played to audiences in small units of or so, and much oftener to audiences of 8 to 10, Every night we play a different place. Singer-actress-dancer Ann Miller described performing for badly wounded soldiers. She did forty-eight shows for "broken soldiers," who were mostly lying on stretchers in the lobbies of hotels, watching as she entertained them. Yellin writes, "During her last show she collapsed and had to be taken home on an Army airplane.
We went from ward to ward to ward, singing and dancing and trying to boost the morale of these men. It was just hell. I just fell apart and I think the shock of seeing those men with their arms and legs blown off — it was just frightening. But when you do it, you do it. You try to help them, try to sing and dance. You try to keep their spirits up.
In , the USO was disbanded,  due partly to lack of funds. Matthews requested that the USO be reactivated "to provide support for the men and women of the armed forces with help of the American people.
At home or overseas, in it was serving 3. Jolson was the first to volunteer, but due to lack of USO funds traveled to Korea at his own expense  he was also the first to entertain troops during World War II.
On that cold, overcast day, there were more than five thousand troops in the audience. They sat on the ground or up on the hillside. When everyone was settled, Danny Kaye opened the show by going to the microphone, looking at his large audience, and shouting, "Who's holding back the enemy? We were thrilled to have Kaye and his entertainers in our area. We especially liked the young women in the show. Danny was okay, with his stories and jokes, but after all, we knew what American men looked like.
Author Linda Granfield in describing the show, writes, "For two hours, the men could forget they were soldiers at war. After the show, they returned to the fighting in the hills. Some in that audience never made it back. In addition, the USO operated centers at major U. According to Westheider, "The young women wore miniskirts — no slacks were allowed.
When providing entertainment, the USO did its best to attract known stars from back home to help relieve the stresses of war. Senator John Kerry recalled how important this kind of diversion would become. According to Kerry biographer Douglas Brinkley, "When the Swift finally made it back to the My Tho River, the crew confronted the heartbreaking sight of a huge Navy landing craft ferrying the troops back.
The USO show was over. But for GIs who saw the show, it was worth it: Everyone fully understood just what was really worth fighting for.
The show was fantastic, but the escape the Bob Hope tour provided us in expectation for days before, and after, helped us keep in touch with what we were there for — God, Country, apple pie The visits by the stars meant a lot to the men and women in Vietnam. Singer and actress Connie Stevens remembered her tour with Bob Hope, when she decided to go despite the fact she had two children both under the age of two. Today, she claims that "veterans were still stopping her and thanking her for visiting Vietnam over 30 years later.
Similarly, Ann-Margret during a book signing was approached by a veteran who asked her to sign a photo he took of her performing in Vietnam. Although the book's publishing representative for the signing event would not allow her to sign anything other than her book, the veteran's wife recalls:. She took one look at the photo, tears welled up in her eyes, and she said, 'This is one of my gentlemen from Viet Nam and I most certainly will sign his photo.
I know what these men did for their country and I always have time for 'my gentlemen. Shows were also performed with comedian Joey Bishop of the Rat Pack. He showed a keen interest in the men's mission while they were hungry for news of life back in the "World.
Polaroid pictures were taken by Mr. Peppard's escort officer, autographed, and given to the men. In , a bloody civil war was raging in Lebanon. In an effort to stop the violence in the region a Multinational Force of peacekeepers composed largely of U. As part of the multinational force the United States mobilized an expeditionary force composed of members of the United States Marine Corps and elements of the United States Sixth Fleet which operated out of the Mediterranean Sea.
Four hundred Marines stationed in Beirut attended the show. USO centers number more than around the world. The USO provides a variety of programs and services, including orientation programs, family events, free Internet and e-mail access, free drinks and snacks, free phone calls home and recreation services. One of the newer programs, called "USO in a Box," delivers program materials ranging from DVD players and videos to musical instruments to remote forward operating bases in Afghanistan.
Willis visited military bases in Iraq during his visit in Iraq. This would be among the largest single monetary donations ever given to the organization. In , the U. Congress honored Bob Hope by declaring him the "first and only honorary veteran of the U.
His contribution to the USO began in and ended with Operation Desert Shield in , spending 48 Christmases overseas with American service personnel. Government with his willingness to entertain whenever they needed him. Hope was among the first to say yes. As a result of his non-stop entertainment to both the civilian population and the military, he received numerous other honors over the years: A Senate resolution declared him "a part of American folklore.
And during his televised birthday celebration, when he turned 90, General Colin Powell saluted Hope "for his tireless USO trouping", which was followed by onstage tributes from all branches of the armed forces. And bandleader Les Brown , who was with him during many of his tours, mentioned that his band "had seen more of Hope's ass in the last forty years than any of Hope's immediate family.
War correspondent Quentin Reynolds wrote in , "He and his troupe would do miles in a jeep, and give four shows One of the generals said Hope was a first rate military target since he was worth a division; that that's about 15, men. Presumably the Nazis appreciated Hope's value, since they thrice bombed towns while the comic was there.
During the Vietnam War years he gave a number of high-rating television specials and sensed that the media had given him a broad endorsement for continuing on his GI mercy missions. Soon after his Christmas show in Saigon in , he learned that the Vietcong had planned a terrorist attack at his hotel against him and his entire troupe, missing him by ten minutes.
He was later "mystified," writes Faith, "and