Electricity consumption of Bitcoin: a market-based and technical analysis

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To be sure, only a minority of bitcoin miners and bitcoin exchanges have said they will support the new currency. It subsequently relaunched its exchange in August and is slowly reimbursing its customers. This left opportunity for controversy to develop over the future development path of bitcoin. So the average efficiency of this added hash rate is likely around 0. Bitstamp resumed trading on 9 January after increasing security measures and assuring customers that their account balances would not be impacted.

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According to a Medium post published by Bakkt CEO Kelly Loeffler on December 31, , the much-anticipated Bitcoin contracts trading platform has successfully raised $ million during its first round of .

In January , Zynga [90] announced it was testing bitcoin for purchasing in-game assets in seven of its games. The article also stated the currency would be accepted in five locations, including the front desk and certain restaurants. In early February , one of the largest bitcoin exchanges, Mt. Gox , [95] suspended withdrawals citing technical issues. Gox had filed for bankruptcy protection in Japan amid reports that , bitcoins had been stolen.

Gox had waned as users experienced difficulties withdrawing funds. Petersburg Bowl under a two-year deal, renamed the Bitcoin St. Bitcoin was to be accepted for ticket and concession sales at the game as part of the sponsorship, and the sponsorship itself was also paid for using bitcoin. In July Newegg and Dell [] started accepting bitcoin. In December Microsoft began to accept bitcoin to buy Xbox games and Windows software. In , several lighthearted songs celebrating bitcoin such as the Ode to Satoshi [] have been released.

A documentary film, The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin , was released in , featuring interviews with bitcoin users, such as a computer programmer and a drug dealer.

In January Coinbase raised 75 million USD as part of a Series C funding round, smashing the previous record for a bitcoin company. Bitstamp resumed trading on 9 January after increasing security measures and assuring customers that their account balances would not be impacted. In February , the number of merchants accepting bitcoin exceeded , In October , a proposal was submitted to the Unicode Consortium to add a code point for the bitcoin symbol. In March , the Cabinet of Japan recognized virtual currencies like bitcoin as having a function similar to real money.

In April , Steam started accepting bitcoin as payment for video games and other online media. In July , researchers published a paper showing that by November bitcoin commerce was no longer driven by "sin" activities but instead by legitimate enterprises.

In November , the Swiss Railway operator SBB CFF upgraded all their automated ticket machines so that bitcoin could be bought from them using the scanner on the ticket machine to scan the bitcoin address on a phone app. Bitcoin generates more academic interest year after year; the number of Google Scholar articles published mentioning bitcoin grew from 83 in , to in , and in Also, the academic Ledger journal published its first issue.

It is edited by Peter Rizun. The number of businesses accepting bitcoin continued to increase. In January , NHK reported the number of online stores accepting bitcoin in Japan had increased 4. Bitcoin gains more legitimacy among lawmakers and legacy financial companies. For example, Japan passed a law to accept bitcoin as a legal payment method, [] and Russia has announced that it will legalize the use of cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin. In March , the number of GitHub projects related to bitcoin passed 10, Exchange trading volumes continue to increase.

In June , the bitcoin symbol was encoded in Unicode version Up until July , bitcoin users maintained a common set of rules for the cryptocurrency. The split has been called the Bitcoin Cash hard fork. On 6 December the software marketplace Steam announced that it would no longer accept bitcoin as payment for its products, citing slow transactions speeds, price volatility, and high fees for transactions.

On 22 January , South Korea brought in a regulation that requires all the bitcoin traders to reveal their identity, thus putting a ban on anonymous trading of bitcoins. On 24 January , the online payment firm Stripe announced that it would phase out its support for bitcoin payments by late April , citing declining demand, rising fees and longer transaction times as the reasons. A fork referring to a blockchain is defined variously as a blockchain split into two paths forward, or as a change of protocol rules.

Accidental forks on the bitcoin network regularly occur as part of the mining process. They happen when two miners find a block at a similar point in time. As a result, the network briefly forks.

This fork is subsequently resolved by the software which automatically chooses the longest chain, thereby orphaning the extra blocks added to the shorter chain that were dropped by the longer chain. On 12 March , a bitcoin miner running version 0. This created a split or "fork" in the blockchain since computers with the recent version of the software accepted the invalid block and continued to build on the diverging chain, whereas older versions of the software rejected it and continued extending the blockchain without the offending block.

This split resulted in two separate transaction logs being formed without clear consensus, which allowed for the same funds to be spent differently on each chain. In response, the Mt.

Gox exchange temporarily halted bitcoin deposits. Miners resolved the split by downgrading to version 0. User funds largely remained unaffected and were available when network consensus was restored. Additionally, FinCEN claimed regulation over American entities that manage bitcoins in a payment processor setting or as an exchanger: In summary, FinCEN's decision would require bitcoin exchanges where bitcoins are traded for traditional currencies to disclose large transactions and suspicious activity, comply with money laundering regulations, and collect information about their customers as traditional financial institutions are required to do.

Basic money-services business rules apply here. In its October study, Virtual currency schemes , the European Central Bank concluded that the growth of virtual currencies will continue, and, given the currencies' inherent price instability, lack of close regulation, and risk of illegal uses by anonymous users, the Bank warned that periodic examination of developments would be necessary to reassess risks.

In , the U. Treasury extended its anti-money laundering regulations to processors of bitcoin transactions. In June , Bitcoin Foundation board member Jon Matonis wrote in Forbes that he received a warning letter from the California Department of Financial Institutions accusing the foundation of unlicensed money transmission. Matonis denied that the foundation is engaged in money transmission and said he viewed the case as "an opportunity to educate state regulators.

In late July , the industry group Committee for the Establishment of the Digital Asset Transfer Authority began to form to set best practices and standards, to work with regulators and policymakers to adapt existing currency requirements to digital currency technology and business models and develop risk management standards.

Securities and Exchange Commission filed an administrative action against Erik T. Voorhees, for violating Securities Act Section 5 for publicly offering unregistered interests in two bitcoin websites in exchange for bitcoins. Bitcoins can be stored in a bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet. Theft of bitcoin has been documented on numerous occasions. At other times, bitcoin exchanges have shut down, taking their clients' bitcoins with them. A Wired study published April showed that 45 percent of bitcoin exchanges end up closing.

On 19 June , a security breach of the Mt. Gox bitcoin exchange caused the nominal price of a bitcoin to fraudulently drop to one cent on the Mt. Gox exchange, after a hacker used credentials from a Mt. Gox auditor's compromised computer illegally to transfer a large number of bitcoins to himself. They used the exchange's software to sell them all nominally, creating a massive "ask" order at any price. Within minutes, the price reverted to its correct user-traded value.

In July , the operator of Bitomat, the third-largest bitcoin exchange, announced that he had lost access to his wallet. He announced that he would sell the service for the missing amount, aiming to use funds from the sale to refund his customers. Bitcoinica was hacked twice in , which led to allegations that the venue neglected the safety of customers' money and cheated them out of withdrawal requests.

Securities and Exchange Commission had reportedly started an investigation on the case. As a result, Bitfloor suspended operations. As a result, Instawallet suspended operations. On 11 August , the Bitcoin Foundation announced that a bug in a pseudorandom number generator within the Android operating system had been exploited to steal from wallets generated by Android apps; fixes were provided 13 August In October , Inputs.

The service was run by the operator TradeFortress. Coinchat, the associated bitcoin chat room, has been taken over by a new admin. The CEO was eventually arrested and charged with embezzlement. On 3 March , Flexcoin announced it was closing its doors because of a hack attack that took place the day before.

It subsequently relaunched its exchange in August and is slowly reimbursing its customers. In December , hackers stole 4, bitcoins from NiceHash a platform that allowed users to sell hashing power. On December 19, , Yapian, a company that owns the Youbit cryptocurrency exchange in South Korea, filed for bankruptcy following a hack, the second in eight months.

In , the Cryptocurrency Legal Advocacy Group CLAG stressed the importance for taxpayers to determine whether taxes are due on a bitcoin-related transaction based on whether one has experienced a " realization event": In August , the German Finance Ministry characterized bitcoin as a unit of account , [75] [] usable in multilateral clearing circles and subject to capital gains tax if held less than one year. On 5 December , the People's Bank of China announced in a press release regarding bitcoin regulation that whilst individuals in China are permitted to freely trade and exchange bitcoins as a commodity, it is prohibited for Chinese financial banks to operate using bitcoins or for bitcoins to be used as legal tender currency, and that entities dealing with bitcoins must track and report suspicious activity to prevent money laundering.

Bitcoin's blockchain can be loaded with arbitrary data. In researchers from RWTH Aachen University and Goethe University identified 1, files added to the blockchain, 59 of which included links to unlawful images of child exploitation, politically sensitive content, or privacy violations. Interpol also sent out an alert in saying that "the design of the blockchain means there is the possibility of malware being injected and permanently hosted with no methods currently available to wipe this data".

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