Cannabinoids alter endothelial function in the Zucker rat model of type 2 diabetes.

Increased interleukin mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of atopic patients with mild asthma after repeated low-dose allergen provocations. The most probable causes are rhinotracheitis and calicivirus.

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Dupilumab should thus be tested in well designed studies, without withdrawal or interruption of conventional, inhaled antiasthma control therapies. Moreover, the effects of dupilumab should be comparatively evaluated in asthmatic patients versus other biological treatments targeting Th2-mediated airway inflammation. Finally, close attention should be paid to the safety and tolerability of dupilumab.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Asthma Allergy v. Published online Sep 4. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The full terms of the License are available at http: Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Simultaneously with the steady progress towards a better knowledge of the pathobiology of asthma, the potential usefulness of anticytokine therapies is emerging as one of the key concepts in the newly developing treatments of this widespread airway disease.

Th2-high asthma, interleukin-4, interleukin, dupilumab. Introduction Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and structural changes in the bronchial walls airway remodeling. Role of IL-4 and IL in asthma pathobiology Recent progress in comprehension of the pathophysiology of asthma can have relevant implications in future therapeutic approaches.

Open in a separate window. Pleiotropic effects of IL-4 and IL in asthma pathobiology. See text for details. Therapies targeting IL-4 and IL Many investigations focusing on the potential actions of ILtargeted antiasthma therapies have produced discordant findings.

Conclusion Recent advances in our understanding of the pathobiology of asthma, together with an increased awareness of the necessity to pursue better phenotypic stratification of asthmatic patients, 1 are opening up novel and exciting therapeutic perspectives.

Footnotes Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. Complex phenotypes in asthma: Chronic inflammation and asthma. Interaction between adaptive and innate immune pathways in the pathogenesis of atopic asthma: House dust mite allergen induces asthma via Toll-like receptor 4 triggering of airway structural cells.

T-helper type 2-driven inflammation defines major sub-phenotypes of asthma. The role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol.

Targeting eosinophils in allergy, inflammation and beyond. Nat Rev Drug Discov. The cytokine network in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New insights into the generation of Th2 immunity and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol.

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells: New kids on the block — group 2 innate lymphoid cells and type 2 inflammation in the lung. Steinke JW, Borish L. Th2 cytokines and asthma. Role of interleukin in asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep.

Interleukininduced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 is mediated by an activation of Janus kinase 1 in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells. Targeting IL-4 in asthma: Increased sputum and bronchial biopsy IL expression in severe asthma. Anti-interleukin antibody therapy for asthma: Increased interleukin mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of atopic patients with mild asthma after repeated low-dose allergen provocations.

Gene-gene interaction in asthma: Am J Hum Genet. Requirement for IL independently of IL-4 in experimental asthma. Interleukin and interleukin-4 are coexpressed in atopic asthma. Proc Assoc Am Physicians.

Interleukin-4 is required for the induction of lung Th2 mucosal immunity. The potential of biologics for the treatment of asthma. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. J Allergy Clini Immunol. Effect of an interleukin-4 variant on late phase asthmatic response to allergen challenge in asthmatic patients: Anti-IL monoclonal antibody inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation and airway remodeling.

Inhibition of human interleukininduced respiratory and oesophageal inflammation by anti-human interleukin antibody CAT Clin Exp Allergy. A phase II placebo-controlled study of tralokinumab in moderate-to-severe asthma. Effects of interleukin blockade on allergen-induced airway responses in mild atopic asthma.

Lebrikizumab in the personalized management of asthma. Analysis of novel disease-related genes in bronchial asthma. Periostin is a systemic biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. Lebrikizumab treatment in adults with asthma.

N Engl J Med. Dose-ranging study of lebrikizumab in asthmatic patients not receiving inhaled steroids. We help committed members of the community to gain an overview of the most crucial considerations. Planning to donate a large amount? Toggle navigation Effective Altruism Foundation. Our mission We conduct and coordinate research on how to do the most good in terms of reducing suffering, and support work that contributes towards this goal. Our priorities We currently focus on efforts to reduce the worst risks of astronomical suffering s-risks from advanced artificial intelligence.

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