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Classical Vaisesika and the History of Indian Ontology.

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Additional documents if you are being posted abroad Are you being posted abroad? The ideas of Kanada span a wide range of fields, and they influenced not only philosophy, but possibly scholars in other fields such as Charaka who wrote a medical text that has survived as Charaka Samhita. The century in which Kanada lived is unclear and have been a subject of a long debate. The Vaisheshika Sutras mention competing schools of Indian philosophy such as Samkhya and Mimamsa, [19] but make no mention of Buddhism, which has led scholars in more recent publications to posit estimates of 6th century BCE.

In Jainism literature, he is referred to as Sad-uluka , which means "the Uluka who propounded the doctrine of six categories".

Kanada was influential in Indian philosophies, and he appears in various texts by alternate names such as Kashyapa, Uluka, Kananda, Kanabhuk among others. His ascribing centrality to physics in the understanding of the universe also follows from his invariance principles. For example, he says that the atom must be spherical since it should be the same in all dimensions. Kanada presents his work within a larger moral framework by defining Dharma as that which brings about material progress and highest good.

Kanada and early Vaisheshika scholars focused on the evolution of the universe by law. Several traits of substances dravya are given as colour, taste, smell, touch, number, size, the separate, coupling and uncoupling, priority and posterity, comprehension, pleasure and pain, attraction and revulsion, and wishes. Thus the idea of subdivision is carried further to analytical categories as well, which explains its affinity with Nyaya.

In the fifth chapter of Vaisheshika Sutra, Kanada mentions various empirical observations and natural phenomena such as the falling of objects to ground, rising of fire and heat upwards, the growth of grass upwards, the nature of rainfall and thunderstorms, the flow of liquids, the movement towards a magnet among many others, asks why these things happen, then attempts to integrate his observations with his theories on atoms, molecules and their interaction.

He classifies observed events into two: His idea of the observer, that is the subject, being different from objective reality is completely consistent with Vedanta , which speaks of the difference between "apara" and "para" knowledge, where "apara" represents normal associational knowledge whereas "para" represents deeper subjective knowledge.

Dharma is that through which there is the accomplishment of rising to the unsurpassed good. Because it is an exposition of that, it has the authority of Veda. That there is only one individual soul is known from the absence of particularity when it comes to the emergence of understanding of happiness and suffering, whereas a multiplicity of individuals is inferred from their perseverance in dharma, and from the strength of their teaching.

Kanada proposes that paramanu atom is an indestructible particle of matter. The atom is indivisible because it is a state at which no measurement can be attributed.

He used invariance arguments to determine properties of the atoms. He also stated that anu can have two states — absolute rest and a state of motion. Adherents of the school of philosophy founded by Kanada considered the atom to be indestructible, and hence eternal. They believed atoms to be minute objects invisible to the naked eye which come into being and vanish in an instant.